Τρίτη, 31 Μαρτίου 2009

NATIONAL OBSERVATORY: Second National Report of Greece

NATIONAL OBSERVATORY FOR COMBATING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN






Second National Report of Greece

March 2009





CONTENTS



I. INTRODUCTION 2

1. The new laws for combating violence against women from 2005 up to today 2

2. Structure of the report 2

II. SERVICES PROVIDED FOR COMBATING THE PHENOMENON - EXISTENT INFRASTRUCTURE 3

1. Programs by national institutions 3

2. Programs in cooperation with national institutions and NGOs 5

3. Structures by national institutions 6

4. Hostels and SOS lines by NGOs 7

III. ADVANCED TRAINING FOR PROFESSIONALS 9

IV. COLLECTION OF DATA / Percentages of violence within the family 10

V. NGOs: THE STRUGGLE FOR COMBATING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 11

1. National Observatory 11

2. The actions of the member organizations of the National Observatory 15

VI. CONCLUSIONS 18

VII. ANNEXES 20

ANNEX 1 21

ANNEX 2 25

ANNEX 3 28

ANNEX 4 30

ANNEX 5 31

ANNEX 6 34





I. INTRODUCTION



1. The new laws for combating violence against women from 2005 up to today



Two laws have been voted and implemented from 2005 up to today. The law 3500/2006 for combating violence within the family, and the law 3488/11/9/2006 which validated the Community Directive 2002/73/ΕP by the European Parliament and the Council on September 23, 2002, which modified the Directive 76/207/ΕEC by the Council for an equal treatment of men and women, and also includes regulations for sexual harassment in the workplace.

In relation to combating the trafficking of women/ victims of trading, law 3064/2006 is always in place, and the presidential decree 233/2003, to the loopholes and ambiguities of which we have already referred in our report in November 2004 (p.10 of the 1st report).

As for combating violence within the family, the most important regulations of law 3500/2006 are those regarding

1. Its implementation on permanent relationships outside of marriage as well.

2. The recognition of rape within marriage as a crime.

3. The prohibition of physical violence on minors as a means of correction.

4. The penalization of lechery abuse, particularly if the victim is a minor.

5. The punishment, with particular severity, of acts of violence within the family performed in the face of a minor, as well as against a pregnant woman or a person who cannot defend themselves, e.g. a disabled senior or a senior.

A description of the omissions and loopholes in this law is in the chapter titled “National Observatory: The approach by the new legislation”.



2. Structure of the report



The report is structured according to the indexes of the text by the European Observatory of the EWL, titled: “Towards a common European framework for the control of progress in the struggle against violence towards women”. In particular we are referring to the existing infrastructure for combating violence against women (hostels and SOS lines by national institutions and NGOs) and the services provided through it –to the programs for achieving this goal and their cooperation with NGOs, where applicable –to advanced education of professionals –to collecting data –to the National Observatory and the activity of its members and to the struggle of NGOs for combating violence against women in general. In the annexes there are, in addition to the CVs of the expert and her substitute, the memorandum we submitted to the General Secretariat for Equality with our proposals for the related bills to be voted, the document to the National Council for Radio and Television on the non-implementation of the principle of equality of men and women in the broadcast programs and advertisements, the document/ protest to the Minister of Justice regarding the abolition of the regulation of the Civil Code concerning the immutability of the paternal family name for the wife, as well as the document to the Minister of the Interior about the advanced training of professionals on issues of violence against women.





II. SERVICES PROVIDED FOR COMBATING THE PHENOMENON - EXISTENT INFRASTRUCTURE



1. Programs by national institutions



In particular by the Center for Research about Equality Issues (ΚΕΘΙ) in cooperation with the General Secretariat for Equality (ΓΓΙ), in the time period 2006-2008.



1st - Support for Regional States regarding the trafficking of women in the framework of the HELLENIC AID program.

Aim of the Program. Direct support for victims and the coverage of necessary structures active in relation to the aid and protection of victims in the Western Balkans.

Funding by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.



2nd- In the same framework of the HELLENIC AID program in relation to actions of prevention and support for victims of illegal trafficking and trading.

Aim of the Program. The prevention of the phenomenon of illegal trafficking and trading in Albania, mainly through educational actions in schools, and the support for victims, through the reinforcement of existing local structures of the International Migration Organization (IOM).

Program Actions. Training Seminars for Teachers, Training and awareness raising campaign for pupils in Albania, providing counseling support to trafficking victims, networking between governmental and non-governmental organizations dealing with aid and protection for victims.

Funding by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.



3rd- The Operational Program EMPLOYMENT AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING by the Ministry of Employment and Social Protection, the final beneficiary of which for the time period 2004- 2007 was the General Secretariat for Equality, had the aim of assuring viable employment to women, by providing services of specified information, counselling and social support, with a priority to victims of violence within the family.

Additionally, on November 25, which has been defined a day for the abolition of violence against women, the program foresaw the distribution of related material by the General Secretariat for Equality, putting up posters in the public means of transport and transmitting a sound message in all Metro stations.



4th. ALKISTIS Program. Organizations: Ministry of Employment and Social Protection, and European Social Fund.

Aim of the Program. Consultation and information of specific professional units, as well as the population, on issues of equality and violence within the family.



5th. A.S.P.I.D.A Program Α.Σ.Π.Ι.Δ.Α 2006-2008

Aim of the Program. Operation of a hostel for trafficking victims, advanced education for professionals, providing psychological, legal and counseling support.



6th. Program: Actions Strengthening Employment with the active participation of NGOs 2008.

Aim. The realization of action projects in municipalities and communities of the Ioannina district aiming at consulting the women in the area on issues of equality in the family, at work and violence within the family.



2. Programs in cooperation with national institutions and NGOs



2.1. National institution: Ministry of Foreign Affairs – NGO: EUROPEAN WOMEN’S NETWORK

Time period 2005-2007

2.1.a. IRINI Program about the SOS line of the European Women’s Network. Amount 10,000 €

2.1.b. ALKISTIS Program, about the illegal trafficking and trading of women. Amount 150,000 €



Time period 2006-2008

1. Program subsidized by the General Secretariat for Equality about violence within the family, which included legal and medical support. Amount 10,000.

2. Program subsidized by the General Secretariat for the Young Generation, titled “art-therapy”, aiming at the support of victims of violence within the family. Amount 20,000 €.



2.2. National institution: Ministry for Employment and Social Protection (subsidized also by the EU) – NGO: Federation of Members of Women’s Associations of Iraklio and the Iraklio district

Time period 2007-2008

Program. Actions for Strengthening Employment with the Active Participation of the NGOs.

The program had the following actions: a) Maltreatment in the Eyes of Children, which was realized by the municipality of Iraklio. b) Intervention in the family for the repression of violence, which was realized by the municipalities of Gazi and Moires.

Aim of the program. Raising awareness on issues related to maltreatment in all of its forms and the attenuation of its consequences on the persons exposed to it.

Duration of one year, from 3/14//2007 to 3/13/2008.



2.3. National institution: Ministry of Foreign Affairs – NGO: CENTER FOR RESEARCH AND SUPPORT FOR VICTIMS OF MALTREATMENT AND SOCIAL EXCLUSION (Ε.Κ.Υ.Θ.Κ.Κ.Α)

Time period 2005-2006

Program title. Relief and Aid to trafficking victims by the citizens’ society and our judicial system- Development of related support frameworks in neighboring Albania.

Program aim. Providing psychological, social and legal support to trafficking victims. Advanced education of police officers on trafficking issues, consultation of the general public.



Program in 2007: Networking of NGOs in Greece and Ukraine- Creation of a database- Aid to trafficking victims

Program aim. Creation of a database for trafficking victims repatriated to Ukraine– Aid and hospitality for the victims.



3. Structures by national institutions



According to the Municipal and Community Code (law 3463/2006) the new responsibility of municipalities and communities at first degree is the counseling support of victims of violence within the family, with the perspective of creating counseling centers and hostels per 10,000 inhabitants.



The National Center for Social Solidarity (Ε.Κ.Κ.Α) is the public institution assuming the cases of couples with occasional and not long-time maltreatment, even though, with the legislation in force and the proclamations of the competent public institutions involved, it should assume cases of long-time maltreatment as well. According to our briefing by the National Center for Social Solidarity, it cannot cope with cases of long-time violence within the family, because it lacks the specialized permanent scientific staff and the suitable material infrastructures. It runs a hostel and an SOS line, but not exclusively for cases of violence within the family. It also provides interpretation assistance for trafficking victims.



As to the hostels subordinated to the General Secretariat for Equality, they remain the same we have mentioned in the 1st report of the Observatory, in November 2004. Unfortunately, while they are doing a perfect job, they are too few in relation to the percentages of violence within the family in Greece and the portion of the population they have to serve.



3.1. Hostels and SOS lines by national institutions

Counseling Centers for Violence against Women by the General Secretariat for Equality in Athens and Piraeus.



Athens 11, Nikis str. Syntagma. In cooperation with the municipality of Athens, it also runs a hostel for maltreatment victims, with the ability to lodge up to 10 women.



Piraeus 76, Alkiviadou str.



Ε.Κ.Κ.Α. 135, Vas. Sofias str., SOS line 197. It also runs a hostel for maltreatment victims, as well as for other cases.

It used to have one in Thessaloniki as well but, due to the lack of staff, it is not functioning permanently.



THESSALONIKI – Counseling Center by the General Secretariat for Equality



PATRAS - Counseling Center by the General Secretariat for Equality



CRETE

FEDERATION OF MEMBERS OF WOMEN’S ASSOCIATIONS OF IRAKLIO and the Iraklio district. The Women’s Federation of Crete is an NGO disposing of a hostel and an SOS line for victims of violence within the family. The hostel can lodge 7 to 10 women with their children and serves cases from all over Crete and, in several cases, from the islands around. It is financially supported by the Ministry for Development and corresponding European programs, but also by donations.

To the women lodged full hospitality is offered, expenses for their journey outside of Crete if necessary. Psychological, counseling and legal help is also provided, as well as help in finding a residence and a job.



4. Hostels and SOS lines by NGOs



4.1 ATHENS



4.1.1. NGO UNAFFILIATED WOMEN’S MOVEMENT. It offers counselling, psychological and legal help to maltreatment victims. It also implements a consultation program for women through art therapy, regarding their attention to short-lived relationships when dating unknown people and the dangers they encompass. It publishes the magazine TELESILA with issues about violence within the family and trafficking.

4.1.2. NGO EUROPEAN WOMEN’S NETWORK. It runs an SOS line and a hostel for women victims of maltreatment and trafficking, which can lodge 8-10 women. It receives subsidies from European Programs, the General Secretariat for Equality and Ministries such as of Health and Foreign Affairs.

4.1.3. CHOLARGOS HOSTEL. It is an association that runs a hostel for maltreatment victims –about 10 women with their children. It also offers them legal and psychological help. It is among the oldest associations active in issues of violence against women. It receives no state subsidy nor accepted any related European program and is maintained by donations and contributions by its members.

4.1.4. ARCHDIOCESE HOSTEL. The Archdiocese hostel lodges women victims of maltreatment together with their children and is financially maintained by means from the Greek orthodox Church.

4.1.5. CATHOLICS’ HOSTEL MARIA THERESA. The hostel lodges victims of violence within the family, women with their children, helps them financially and supports them psychologically. It is maintained by the catholic church.

4.1.6. NGO KLIMAKA It runs an SOS line for trafficking victims and formerly a corresponding hostel, which was closed down due to lack of financial funds.



4.2 THESSALONIKI

4.2.1. NGO ARSIS. It offers a hostel, psychological and legal help to victims of violence within the family. Though, the lack of financial funds creates a problem for its further operation. It receives no state help.

4.2.2. SOCIAL SUPPORT CENTER FOR WOMEN IN THESSALONIKI

It runs an SOS line, with counseling, legal and psychological support. But as we were informed by the person in charge, continuing its operation is problematic, since, while it is being supported by its members, it is not enough, because it does not receive any help from the state or from European programs.



4.3 OTHER CITIES

4.3.1. VOLOS - GREEK RELIEF. It is a charity association disposing of a hostel for 4 to 6 women victims of maltreatment, with their children. It serves cases not only from Volos but all over Thessaly, since a corresponding hostel does not exist anywhere else. It is financially supported by contributions from its members and donations.

4.3.2. DRAMA.- NGO LADIES’ UNION OF DRAMA. It runs a hostel for women victims of maltreatment, with a capacity of 15 to 20 persons. It is financially supported by donations and contributions from its members.

4.3.3. NAFPAKTOS - NGO PLATON. It runs an SOS line for victims of violence within the family with legal and psychological help. It receives no state aid and is supported by its members and donations.

4.3.4. MUNICIPALITY OF KOMOTINI. It runs an SOS line for victims of violence within the family, supporting the women legally and psychologically. No hostel available.

4.3.5. PREVEZA –CENTER OF RESEARCH AND SUPPORT FOR MALTREATMENT VICTIMS. It is cooperating with the Center for Research on Equality Issues (Κ.Ε.Θ.Ι) and runs an SOS line, with legal and psychological help. It has an operation problem, since there is a lack of permanent staff, but of financial funds as well.

4.3.6. SERRES. WOMAN’S HOUSE. An association that has a support line for victims of violence within the family.







III. ADVANCED TRAINING FOR PROFESSIONALS



• According to the report by the General Secretariat for Equality for the year 2006:

The General Secretariat for Equality, in cooperation with the Institute for Advanced Training of the National Center for Public Administration (ΙΝΕΠ-ΕΚΔΔΑ), carries out advanced training and awareness raising seminars for judges, state attorneys, police officers and social workers, for the purpose of combating cases of violence within the family more efficiently, in Athens, Patras, Thessaloniki, Ioannina and Iraklio Crete.



• TIME PERIOD 2006- 2008:

Training Program for Greek Organizations for combating International Trafficking, funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Aim of the Program. Reinforcing the existent structures dealing with trafficking and trading of women in Greece, through carrying out cohesive action by the members of the organizations in question.

Program Actions: Carrying out of 3-day seminars –networking between governmental and non-governmental organizations dealing with aid and protection for the victim as well as combating the phenomenon –carrying out a conference in order to present the results.





IV. COLLECTION OF DATA / Percentages of violence within the family



It concerns data about Greek and foreign women that have contacted the counseling centers of the General Secretariat for Equality in Athens and Piraeus during the year 2006.

Telephone calls: 2550 from 1/1/2006- 12/31/2006

Appointments: 802

67% of the women that sustained maltreatment were married.

21% were divorced or in estrangement, i.e. 1 of 5 women.

16% were foreigners, 4 of 10 originated from Balkan countries.

According to the statistical evaluation in reference to the educational level, 7 of 10 women had Secondary, Technological or University Education. Noteworthy is the fact that 3 of 10 women victims of violence within the family had Technological or University Education and also that 3 of 10 had Compulsory Education. Consequently the myth is raised that the maltreated woman has a low educational level. A woman may become a victim of violence regardless of her educational level.

Also according to the data, 6 of 10 women victims of violence were in medium or good financial standing.

One of women- maltreatment victims married the perpetrator while he showed signs of his violent behavior even before their marriage.

Perpetrator of the violence within the family was at 82% the husband, at a percentage of 12% the partner and at lower percentages persons of the family or social environment, such as father, brother and others.

The duration of the relationship with the perpetrator in 2 of 3 women was, approximately, longer than 10 years.

Approximately 6 of 10 perpetrators had secondary, technological or university education and just 1 of 10 was unemployed.

According to the quantitative analysis of the data 6 of 10 perpetrators had made no use of alcohol or other substances.





V. NGOs: THE STRUGGLE FOR COMBATING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN



As we are mentioning even in our 1st report, of November 2004 (p. 21), Greek women’s organizations are not subsidized by the State, except in the cases they are realizing Community program that are co-funded by the State. However they develop an abundant activity, and a part of this activity consists in their struggle facing violence against women.



1. National Observatory



The National Observatory of Greece was founded on 5/31/2003, during the Greek presidency of the EU. Its structure is different from the one in the other countries. Its member organizations are not all of them members of the Greek department of the European Women’s Lobby. As we are mentioning even in our 1st report (p. 3), the idea of a cooperation between organizations, further than the ones participating in the EWL, is attractive. In the years that followed, this cooperation resulted in the development of an abundant activity by an associate, effective at national level, for combating the phenomenon of violence against women. The cooperation on national level has also been able to constitute a unique chance –apart from the joint examination of the problems due to the lack of structures for combating the phenomenon of violence- for the coming together of policy makers with the NGOs of the base in order to find out solutions.

In the framework of this activity, the National Observatory a) addressed a document to the National Council for Radio and Television on the subject of implementing the principle of equality between women and men through the broadcasts, the reports and the television advertisements (see Annex 2), b) protested intensely and asked the Minister of Justice to honor his office and not to insist on the modification of article 1388 of the Civil Code which rules that “the family name of spouses is not modified through marriage” (see Annex 3) and c) with a document to the Ministry of the Interior and Public Order offers its cooperation with Police Authorities for a better treatment of the phenomenon of violence against women (see Annex 4).





1.1. The approach by the new legislation

The strong pressure exerted by the NGOs/ members of the National Observatory, as well as other NGOs dealing with violence against women, achieved the voting of law 3500/2006 about violence within the family, even though the law in question does not cover the legislative loopholes that women’s organizations had pointed out and Mrs Costavara in particular, as the expert of the European Observatory and one of the three scientific members of the first Interministerial Committee that legislated the first bill on violence in the family (cf. 1st report of the National Observatory, p. 9-11). In particular:



1.1.1. On June 26, 2005 the Democratic Women’s Movement submitted to the members of the Work Group composed by the General Secretariat for Equality, with the objective of elaborating a law combating violence within the family, a text with law proposals, countersigned by the remaining members of the Network “for combating male violence against women”. (See Annex #1).



1.1.2. On 07/15/05 the Findings of the Work Group were communicated to us by the General Secretariat for Equality, accompanied by a letter in which we were asked “for our support in the promotion of the proposals in the findings and the spirit of these proposals in particular”. We answered this letter with a document filed on 07/28/05 at the responsible office of the General Secretariat for Equality that “we are sorry that we will not be able to meet your demand for supporting these findings, the particular regulations of which as well as its general spirit we are totally opposed to”.



1.1.3. An interview by Mrs Costavara followed at the column “the Virus” of the established newspaper “ELEFTHEROTYPIA” about the course of the legislative procedure on the subject and on 10/15/05 a note by the General Secretary for Equality was published, Mrs Evgenia Tsoumani, with “clarifications on the subject of the legislative framework for combating violence within the family” and an announcement, in parallel, that “the Findings were forwarded last July to the Ministry of Justice as it is responsible on the matter of promoting the related law bill”.



1.1.4. After the publication of the bill of law for combating violence within the family, the coordinator of the National Observatory “for combating violence against women” was called to comment on it in the related discussion organized by the feminist groups. In the written recommendation that she sent them there is the explicit remark that “the proposed law bill does not fulfill any of the preconditions of a modern law, it does not face the problem and consequently it does not solve it”. The same was repeated by Mrs Costavara, invited as always in the capacity of the coordinator of the National Observatory –together with the General Secretary for Equality and the President of the Union of Judges and State Attorneys of Greece- by the Thessaloniki bar association at the scientific event it organized on May 3, 2006, with the subject “Bill of law for combating violence within the family”.

An enumeration of the elements that make the voting of this law bill unacceptable follows, which was however voted and it is the law in force.

Among other things it is ruled:

- In article 6 that with this article the most severe forms of physical injury within the family are countered. Which means that the perpetrator of psychological violence is not penally prosecuted.

- In article 8, which counters rape in marriage, it is defined: “From the text of paragraph 1 of article 336 of the Penal Code the expression out of wedlock is eliminated”.

But in a special law, as the proposed one, a cross-reference to the regulations of another law is not recommended, because problems of interpretation are arguably created, as for example, what is the penalty inflicted on the crime of conjugal rape. It is necessary, for this reason, to explicitly acknowledge conjugal rape as a punishable act and to define its penalty, as it is done with the other acts of violence described in the law (articles 6,7,9).

- Articles 11-14: These articles refer to the function of the unacceptable figure of the intervener. The editors of the law claim that through the introduction of this institution in our country the penal justice system becomes friendlier for the particular category of victims so that those, on the one hand, have more motives to report the act, on the other hand the possibility is provided to them to take part in a process that will have the goal to help them discuss and terminate the related behaviours with the help of an impartial third party. What is being presented as the advantage of this process, since the victim will allegedly have the courage to report the act, shows an ignorance of reality. The experts dealing with the problem, if asked, will tell us that the women coming to testify about the maltreatment are normally in great confusion, anxiety and insecurity. They are seeking help and support and no discussion with the perpetrator of violence.

The formulation of the articles in their entity gives the impression that the institution was created to protect the perpetrator of the violent acts. Thus, the state attorney responsible for indicting penal prosecution decides if it will be indicted, i.e. he takes care of preventing indictment, and the case goes into the Archive, if the perpetrator of the crime declares that he is willing to give his word of honor that he will not repeat the acts of violence in the future. Why haven’t special scientists and professionals dealing with this form of violence been asked? They know very well that the perpetrator of violence constantly promises that he will improve himself. How many times hasn’t he told the victim –his partner- that she is the only one capable of understanding him and making him change –to the extent that she ends up feeling responsible for the violence exerted against her!! What is the difficulty in giving his “word of honor”, in order to avoid indictment! Related studies, carried out in the USA, distinguish 3 phases in the cycle of violence. In the 3rd phase the perpetrator expresses remorse and makes all kinds of promises to the victim. In exactly this phase a large number of victims returns to their partners hoping there will be no repetition. Reality disproves their hopes.



1.1.5. As to the existent infrastructure and the services provided. According to article 21 of law 3500/2006: “The victims of violence within the family are entitled to full moral and the absolutely necessary material support by legal entities of public or private law operating specially for these goals under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and Social Solidarity and by social services of the local government organizations”.

But, as we are already mentioning in the related chapter, the National Center for Social Solidarity (Ε.Κ.Κ.Α), which is the public institution taking care of the cases of couples with maltreatment, cannot cope with its work because it lacks the specialized permanent scientific staff and the proper material infrastructures.

Still, in the documents we addressed to the General Secretariat for Equality and communicated also to the responsible Minister of Justice, we pointed out the need of aid to the victims. We reminded that, in the countries implementing the recommendations of the EU about violence within the family, the measures of help for the victims include full social aid and free legal help. Free Legal Help for the woman/ victim includes the right to free defense and representation by a Lawyer in all law suits and administrative procedures in direct or indirect relation to the violence they have been subject to. In parallel, when they are addressing Police Authorities, full consultation is provided to the victims on their rights as well as advice in relation to their condition and the related services for their relief are notified. Additionally, the creation and operation of a mechanism of observation, control and evaluation of the whole system facing the problem is deemed necessary.

Unfortunately none of those is implemented in our country.





2. The actions of the member organizations of the National Observatory



2.1. AMNESTY INTERNTIONAL (WOMEN’S SECTION) – Most important actions for 2007-2008:

- Publication of a report on trafficking in Greece and a press conference about the related issue.

- Collection of 15,000 signatures internationally for promoting the demands related to violence.

- Compilation of a Guide of Criteria for the Acknowledgement of trafficking Victims in cooperation with 10 other organizations in the field and its presentation to the Ministry of Justice. Institutional pressure for the modification of the legislation in force, so that the cooperation of the victim with the police for the persecution of the perpetrators is not considered a prerequisite for providing protection.

- Opinion survey about trafficking in 5 big cities. The number of questionnaires amounted to 1,400.

- Participation in the Network for Eliminating the Mutilation of Female Genital Organs with the goal of creating a national plan of action.

- Cooperation with women’s- feminist NGOs on issues of violence against women.

- Participation in the National Committee for Equality as representatives of the citizens’ society and submission of comments on the work of the General Secretariat for Equality. Review of the law 3500/2006 about violence within the family.

- Big support and international information campaign about Κ. ΚUNEVA with an international collection of signatures and her inclusion in the list of the 8 women that Amnesty International has under its protection in 2009.

- Various actions for the campaign Let us stop violence against women, with an emphasis on violence within the family, such as the mounting of a giant poster at the Benaki museum, theater performances, a youth summer camp, wide coverage by the mass media etc.



2.2. EUROPEAN WOMEN’S NETWORK (Greek section). It runs a hostel for trafficking victims, where they stay depending on the case from one week to 8-9 months, and it has a capacity of up to 35 women.

The average age of the women lodged was 19-20 years and the nationalities: 17 Romanians, 11 Russians, 2 Albanians, 1 Bulgarian, 3 Nigerians and 1 from Lithuania. They were provided medical care, psychological support, legal help and interpretation into their language.

At the SOS line maintained by the Network for trafficking victims, 60 calls were received in 2008 for legal advice but direct help as well, through which 20 victims were lodged in the Network’s hostel.

The Network’s conclusion is that the trafficking victims are gradually gaining trust in the NGOs’ services and this year, for the first time, the victims are calling in person and not through a third party.



2.3. WOMEN’S CENTER OF THE KARDITSA MUNICIPALITY: The Women’s Center of the Karditsa Municipality offers counseling, legal and psychological help to maltreatment victims and helps raise the awareness of the local community on issues of violence against women. There is an immediate need for a hostel lodging victims of violence, on a local level and the region of Thessaly, but there is no state subsidy.



2.4. CENTER OF RESEARCH and ACTION for PEACE (ΚΕΔΕ): The program STOP NOW- “Stop the trafficking of human beings now”- that had begun in 2004 with a subsidy by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs has not been completed, because the money was not granted.

The Center of Research and Action for Peace, through its magazine Woman’s Struggle, which appears twice a year, informs about legislation on women’s issues and makes a critical assessment. The Center of Research and Action for Peace is also active on issues of peace related to women.



2.5. CENTER FOR RESEARCH and SUPPORT OF VICTIMS OF MALTREATMENT and SOCIAL EXCLUSION (Ε.Κ.Υ.Θ.Κ.Κ.Α): It runs a hostel lodging maltreatment and trafficking victims. It also provides psychological, social and legal support for victims of trafficking, but violence within the family as well. It organizes advanced training seminars for local police officers on trafficking issues, but for other professional groups as well, and information of the public on violence issues. It has been subsidized by European programs that we are mentioning in the related chapter.



2.6. GREEK WOMEN’S UNION – IOANNINA DEPARTMENT: It is active in issues of violence against women with various events as resolutions, announcements and interviews in the local Press, and actually assists women subject to any form of violence. Examples: a) they defended an economic immigrant who took an unjust and racist assault by a bus driver, b) they aided in the case of the rape of a pupil in Amarynthos, by mobilizing the local community and reporting the facts at the local Press and Television. They have received no program and are financially backed exclusively by their members.



2.7. DEMOCRATIC WOMEN’S MOVEMENT (ΚΔΓ): Carries on the work of informing and raising the awareness of the public.

- Exerts pressure on the responsible Authorities for the institutionalization and implementation of measures of support and protection for the victims of violence.

- Composes and publicizes texts of protest, as for example in the case of the rape of a pupil in Amarynthos

- Cooperates with feminist NGOs on issues of violence against women.

- It receives no subsidy from any state institution and is financially backed only by its members.



2.8. SELF-DEFENSE GROUP: The Self-Defense Group continues training women for facing any form of violence, physical or verbal. It cooperates with all NGOs dealing with victims of violence within the family, but also with the hostel of the General Secretariat for Equality, providing free lessons. It has realized free self-defense seminars at women’s associations in municipalities and communities and has given lectures on violence issues.

It has assisted in trials for victims of rape and trafficking and has vigorously participated in the campaign of assistance to Konstantina Kuneva. Kuneva is a woman from Bulgaria, a trade unionist in the association of cleaning ladies in Public Transport. She took a murderous attack on 12/23/2008 from bouncers, with sulphuric acid they cast on her face and even forced her to drink. She is being treated in the Evangelismos Hospital, in critical condition.

It has a web site with the group’s history, as well as a biography with all actions by the group. The group receives no subsidy from any state institution and is financially backed only by its members.





VI. CONCLUSIONS



Our findings summarily:

1. There are no hostels for lodging women victims of violence within the family and trafficking, not even in the capitals of the Districts. There are, as mentioned, just 2 hostels of hospitality under state care throughout Greece, and one of them even sub-functioning, for about 2,500,000 Greek women.

2. There are no support lines for the victims of violence, nor specialized scientist to staff them.

3. There are no corresponding programs and no supply of financial funds by the state for violence issues.

4. In the police stations there are no police officers trained for dealing with the victims, in spite of the training that preceded. Furthermore police officers often admit ignorance of the new law as well as of the institutions they should channel the victims to in order to receive help.

5. There are no physicians (women or men) dealing with victims of maltreatment or rape in the public hospitals.

6. The General Secretariat for Equality and the Ministries involved rarely cooperate with the NGOs dealing with violence issues, so that they deprive the victims of violence of the possibility to be provided services by sensitized women, with a long-time experience in the sector of violence and with a feminist conscience, which is a necessary precondition for cracking down on the phenomenon. For the lack of this cooperation, we arguably impute full responsibility to the administration of the General Secretariat for Equality.



It is understandable that the new legislative arrangement for violence within the family and the trafficking of women, even with important defects and loopholes, remains unimplemented and it is empty words, due to the complete lack of the necessary structures (hostels, counseling centers, supply of services by specialized scientists), but also the total absence of political will for combating the phenomenon on the part of the state.



VII. ANNEXES



ANNEX 1





T o



The members of the Work Group assembled

with the objective of drawing up a law

for combating violence within the family



General Secretariat for Equality

8 Dragatsaniou str.

Athens 105 59



Athens June 26, 2005



Proposals of the Democratic Women’s Movement (ΚΔΓ)

and the others members of the Network “for combating male violence

against women”



Violence against women is a real problem, the consequences of which, among them financial ones as well, society as a whole sustains daily. However maltreated women do not report maltreatment, even when the feel in danger.



“They may fear revenge against them or against the children, or be out of work, which may be difficult to search for if the perpetrator does not allow them to, who many times forbids them social contact as well, even with their family. For wealthy women there are social barriers like the fear that they will not be believed, that the decent profession of the husband will sustain damage, the isolation from the family which takes the part of the culprit, especially if he has money and social status and looks for blame in the woman, the attitude of older women that claim that all men are like this, the lack of money in cash, even when there are many assets” .



On the basis of these recorded data, it is understandable that we accept with relief the concern for covering the legislative loophole and the proposal by the General Secretariat for Equality for cooperation “in promoting actions towards the equality of genders and the support, promotion and strengthening of the position of women”. Because violence furthermore creates a wealth of elements that nourish and consolidate hostility between genders, such as distrust, fear etc. We often conceal even from ourselves hostile feelings and hostile attitude towards the opposite gender and do not recognize them as an inextricable part of daily life. As to the fear of male violence, it always exists in a subtle and diffused manner.



In relation to covering the legislative loophole in the sector of violence within the family and the effective countering of the phenomenon, our organisation is convinced of the following:



• We need a spherical law, adapted to the particular cases of this violence, which will conjoin in a single text the regulations that are, as a rule, classified separately into the penal and the civil code. In this way possible legal controversies will be avoided and the remaining difficulties that bringing a case to different courts entails, simultaneously saving time, energy and costs.

• This law should:

-contain an exact definition and description of the punishable behavior –the definition shall include the physical, sexual as well as psychological dimension of this violence, and shall acknowledge it as a particularly incriminatory fact that demands more severe punishment



-punish the rape committed by a husband against the wife and the designated penalty should be imprisonment. It should be noted that Greece is the penultimate among the member States of the EU that complies with the call by the European Committee to penalize conjugal rape, while there are States where it is punished even with life imprisonment



-cover all stages: prevention –protection and help for the victims –suppression, as well as countering the perpetrators in the framework of an effort to change their violent behavior.



• In the prevention stage a series of actions is included, preceded by recording the existing structures, as well as informing and awareness raising for the entire society, part of which is the permanent campaign about violence within the family. A campaign that should be broadened with regard to the remaining forms of violence, so that this violence becomes visible and the intended result of non-tolerance for is achieved by our entire society. Scientific research and studies of the phenomenon and its extent should be scheduled.



• In the stage of protection and help for the victims, services should be established that counter all facets of the problem, as well as a Family Advisers’ Service aiming at the research, intervening, providing advice, legal and material aid to the victims. In parallel, mechanisms should be designed for observing the efficiency of the above services, as well as the implementation and the observance of the related legislation.



• A series of measures should be established for the protection of the victims and their witnesses. Arrangements should be made for the perpetrator of violence within the family to be removed from home, in order to protect the remaining family members (In national reports from the United Kingdom and Denmark it has been pointed out that, in cases where the violent partner was granted access to the children, he normally takes advantage to continue his violent behavior).



• The need for education and permanent advanced training of all factors involved in the system countering the problem should be emphasized (social workers, psychologists, teachers, physicians, judges, lawyers), and the first among them are officers serving in the Police.



• In the suppression stage, a therapeutic treatment should be introduced, as a complement to imprisonment penalties, which will encourage men to assume responsibility for the acts of violence they commit. Special programs that have been implemented in other EU countries, in the framework of this treatment, have proven that male violence often manifests itself as a result of a feeling of weakness by its perpetrator and it is used as proof of his strength and his prestige in relation to the other gender. The basic criterion for the programs countering the perpetrators, during them as well as after their completion, should be the safety of the maltreated women and their children. For this reason:



- People dealing with countering the perpetrators should, before they start their work, undergo special training and study the related programs. It is also advisable that they are supervised by women’s groups, so that the perpetrators treated have the opportunity to reevaluate their own relationship to women.



- The treatment program for the perpetrator should not be separated from the program of support for the maltreated woman. The two programs should be in constant intercommunication.



- The treatment program for the perpetrator should be in accord with the penal system enforcing penalties. In no case should the reform program for the perpetrator become an alibi for his acquittal of the penalty imposed.



• The quick trial of cases concerning incidents of violence within the family should be arranged.



• For the correct implementation of the proposed law, founding and operating a special Fund for the victims of violence within the family should be arranged. It is necessary to include a special item of expenditure in the State Budget for violence against women, as a percentage of the Gross National Product.



• Last but not least, the cooperation with non-governmental institutions should be established (as a rule, feminist organizations, groups and networks), as well as their right to appear as public prosecution in the trials concerning incidents of violence within the family, with the consenting opinion of the victim. It is a fact that in Greece, where shelters for maltreated women are rare, the victims of violence are contacting non-specialized centers (hospitals and health centers). However it is women’s collective unions that meet the needs of women facing violence, offering the victims: free legal support –help and assistance in the courtrooms –psychological help –training for self-protection, while at the same time they exert pressure to the responsible authorities and demand the political condemnation of violence against women. These collective unions also engage themselves in the study of the various experiences of women in the sector of violence and the discriminations deriving from it. Furthermore, most of them are recording the data of the problem of violence against women. We remind that the European Commission has pointed out the important role of women’s NGOs in the sector of countering the problem of violence against women. Moreover, the European Commission judges that broad information of the public is needed through campaigns in every State and has pointed out that all these years these organizations, as well as certain women’s groups, make efforts to raise the awareness of society as a whole about the violence that women are sustaining, with the aim of creating a balanced society, a society whose members will be able to live together harmonically. Let us note that in most member States of the EU the operation of the corresponding women’s NGOs is funded by the State.



With our wishes for success in your work,



The President of the The General Secretary of the

Democratic Women’s Movement Democratic Women’s Movement



Kety Paparriga Costavara Evangelia Gazi





ANNEX 2







NATIONAL OBSERVATORY FOR COMBATING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN





To

the National Radio and Television Council



To be notified:

Editors’ Union of Athens Daily Newspapers (ΕΣΗΕΑ), The Citizen’s Advocate (Obusman), General Secretariat for Equality (ΓΓΙ), Athens Bar Association (ΔΣΑ), Union of Mass Media Owners, Advertisers’ Union, Foreign Press Reporters’ Union.



Subject: Equality between women and men



Athens, February 25, 2009



Ladies and Gentlemen,



Our basic goal being to defend women’s rights but also to protect human dignity in general, we are observing for quite some time now with regret, sometimes even with resentment, through our TV screens the exposure of human beings and especially women as a consumable product, available for any use and completely down-rated.

The dwindling course of respect for human dignity has gone too far. The woman constitutes the wrapping, the necessary “trimming” of every product. Her body is bearing her, she is not bearing her body. As much in TV shows, like “Deal, Super Deal, All”, as in advertisements, the woman is presented as a soulless, half naked or even naked doll, a will-less being, bearing her well-shaped body around, to the sole purpose of pleasing the eyes and satisfying all kinds of appetites of TV viewers everywhere.

Moreover, a few advertisement examples are representative, as for instance by COSMOTE, “I do not love your daughter, I’m marrying her for her dowry”, says the quipping future bridegroom. Everybody is shocked in the beginning, with the future bride totally quiescent and stoically accepting her fate, a “fate” fortunately outdated for years now, afterwards they laugh and congratulate him for his sincerity, praising COSMOTE. In another advertisement by E-SHOP, an erotic scene is shown where, while the man is undressing the woman, he sees on her underwear (panty) the warning “YOU WILL PAY IT DEARLY”. We believe that details are not only redundant, but also beyond the esthetics of any human being respecting themselves and his next as oneself…



These examples are unfortunately not mentioned as the only “dark points” spotted, but as a sample of a provoking reality in television. Of corresponding content is also the advertisement of the ‘Daewoo Matiz’ automobile (the half naked lady is washing its outside, rubbing her body on it with pleasure as well… but forgetting to close the windows…). And if for a few these simply cause laughter, the boundaries between humor and insult should be rather redefined!



After so many years of constant efforts and struggles, in an era where the woman has attained with permanent assertions the right to equality, has engaged in all roles and won recognition in all levels, some people, for purely speculative reasons, continue presenting her either as “a beautiful, yet dumb doll”, as a dependent helpless creature, or as a paid erotic partner. And this, regardless of possible expediencies, is scornful by itself.



Observing, among others, what we have mentioned above, we deem advisable to approach you, as the only and exclusively responsible for expressing our reflections, as well as to point out the need for action – a reaction to this massive, intentional promotion of gross “standards”, which, beyond its devastating consequences, runs the risk of getting out of control.



It is sad that after so many decades of our efforts, we are obliged to go on demanding what is self-evident. Nowadays television promotes a wider variety of stereotypes, but within the logic of integrating women into the male model and especially, with an emphasis on violence. It is necessary that we repeat that Mass Media, especially electronic ones, with the images they are showing as well as the speech they are broadcasting, they are sending messages to society through which they are preserving and reproducing social concepts, so that they obstruct the accomplishment of equality among genders –a humanization factor for our society.

It is known that the role of electronic Mass Media in shaping public opinion and perception is decisive since through the use of images, they are invading every home and every corner of our country. It is not accidental that TV is classified among educational mechanisms. The issue is what it is teaching!!!



In an international conference organized in November 1985 by the General Secretariat for Equality, it had been announced that a law bill about advertisement was ready to be submitted to Parliament, which included regulations stipulating a ban on exploiting a woman’s body and insulting her intelligence. On October 5, 1995 the Council of ministers from the Member States of the EU adopted a Resolution regarding the image of women and men in advertisement and the mass media. Additionally, the principle of gender mainstreaming was established in our country as well, subsequent to acknowledging the fact that: women have talents and skills that are necessary for the development of our societies. This principle should be implemented even in the Mass Media, so that the promoted stereotypes of men and women are modified and adapted to social reality, promoting the new human being (man and woman) that has emerged.



But, in order to attain the implementation of this principle, establishing advanced training for employees in Mass Media on issues of equality between genders must precede. In the aforementioned conference of the General Secretariat for Equality, George Romaios –thereafter minister of Public Order- had stated: “Having served journalism for twenty five years, as correctly as I could, it was hard for me to overcome the mentality of discrimination in which we were born and raised”. But, as you know better than us, one of the aims of the Editors’ Union of Athens Daily Newspapers (ΕΣΗΕΑ) is safeguarding the social role of journalists. And the subjectivity of a journalist, as stated by Mr. Romaios as well, “is made up by the degree of his education, of his morals, of his accountability and basically by his attitude and his standing within the social structure”. Consequently, for the phenomenon of diffusing this anachronistic and unreal image of the alleged social reality through broadcasts, reportages and TV advertisements to cease to exist, raising the awareness and advanced training of people serving there on the spirit of modern reality is necessary.



In the hope that we have managed to communicate our concern and our intense anxieties to you, and in the belief that you agree with us that the consolidation of equality is not favoring women but the entire society, and that consequently it is worth trying to relieve this society from harmful elements, like the ones abundant in the area of Mass Media, we will expect your response. At the same time we announce that we are willing to discuss and cooperate with you in order to achieve our goal.



For the National Observatory for combating violence against women,

on behalf of the Network “for combating all forms of male violence against women”



Alexia Tsouni tel. 6974461210

Stavroula Kourakou tel. 6944415165

Dina Vardaramatou tel. 6977609715.





ANNEX 3





NATIONAL OBSERVATORY

FOR COMBATING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN









T o



The Minister of Justice





To be notified:

The Prime Minister

and the General Secretariat for Equality



Subject: Family name of women

Athens, November 19, 2008







Mr. Minister of Justice



After the final text of the law bill that includes regulations modifying Greek Family Law was submitted to Parliament, from which the regulation modifying article 1388 of the Civil Code1 had been eliminated, we believed that you answered the demand of our country’s women’s organizations, -which, all of them with no exception, asked for article 1388 of the Civil Code not to be modified- and that you wanted to prove that the Greek government follows its commitments2.



Tragic was our astonishment when we were informed that at the last moment3 you broke your promise and went back to the abolished regulation, overriding Greece’s official commitments, as well as the regulations of law 1342/83, which is a foundational law for a modern rule-of-law state, and with which Greece ratified the International UN Convention known by its initials in Latin writing as CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women).



Let it be noted that our State, during its Presidency (1st semester of 2003), asked the European Commission to introduce, in cooperation with the member States, an annual report about the progress in the issue of gender equality and its integration into the sector of policy. We are wondering what impression pointing out this legislative inadmissibility to the European Commission will cause, in the report the Greek National Observatory must present next month4.



Is it possible that the return of our country to the status before 1983 says nothing to you, when it had the most backward Civil Code?



It is unthinkable that you demand the elimination of a regulation that has been implemented for a quarter of a century and has granted the women of this country –half and more of its population- dignity and the possibility to feel equal to men!!!



Mr. Minister of Justice, we ask you to honor your office and not to insist on imposing this anachronistic measure.





For the National Observatory for combating violence against women, on behalf of the Network “for combating all forms of male violence against women”



The coordinators

Dina Vardaramatou tel. 6977609715.

Stavroula Kourakou tel. 6944415165

Alexia Tsouni tel. 6974461210





ANNEX 4



Prot.No.374049/2/25/2009



NATIONAL OBSERVATORY

FOR COMBATING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN



Address – Nikitara 8-10, Athens





RESPONSIBLE:

Alexia Tsouni 6974461210

Dina Vardaramatou 6977609715

Stavroula Kourakou 6944415165







TO

THE MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR & PUBLIC ORDER

CRIME COMBATING DIVISION

Responsible: Mrs. Vamvakaki

4, P. Kanellopoulou str. Postcode 101 77



Mrs. Vamvakaki,



In order to confront the phenomenon of violence against women in a better way and facilitate the police officers and stations responsible, we are sending you attached basic self-defense advice, as well as a list of the responsible state services and women’s organizations women reporting events related to rape or violence within the family can contact.



We ask you to send out notifications and to distribute them in all police stations of the country.



Additionally, according to the recommendation by the European Commission and the CEDAW Convention (law 1342/83), you will have to see to it that in cases of a report of rape or violence within the family the testimony of the victim is taken by a police officer of the same sex who is specially trained.



We thank you in advance for a good cooperation and ask you to inform us within 15 days about your actions.



ATTACHED:

1) Self-Defense Advice

2) List of state services and NGOs in relation to violence within the family and rape.



TO BE NOTIFIED: General Secretariat for Equality – 8, Dragatsaniou str. – Postcode 105 59



ANNEX 5



Curriculum Vitae





Catherine Paparriga-Costavara

Lawyer - Sociologist



128, Solonos str.

Athens 106 81

Tel. ++ 30 210 3821106

Fax ++ 30 210 3821879

===================





Graduate of the Kapodistrian University of Athens in Law, and of the Jussieu University in Paris in Sociology. She is also a graduate of the Institute for European Studies in European Law.

She continues with her post graduate studies in Italy in Penal Law, in Paris at the department for Women’s Studies at the St. Denis University where she writes her thesis on the issue of Rape.



Activity regarding equality between genders



• Coordinator and special consultant of the Greek National Observatory combating violence against women.

• Author of the first report of the Greek National Observatory combating violence against women (November 2004)

• Founding member of the “Network combating male violence against women”

• Member of the group of experts within the Interministerial Committee dealing with the issue of violence against women (2000-2004); by order of the Committee, author and responsible for the advanced training program for professionals (judges, state attorneys, lawyers of public services, police personnel, social workers, psychologists, health personnel, physicians, teachers, journalists) in connection with the National Faculty for Public Administration.

• As a lawyer, she is defending victims of rape for several years (1975-2000)

• Member of the Committee of researchers dealing on transnational level with the study of sexual harassment at the workplace. Responsible for the research in Greece (1996-97)

• Expert at the European Council on the subject of violence against women.

• As a trainer at advanced training seminars on issues of gender equality, she has trained on this subject young lawyers, judges, and police officers. As a coordinator of training programs for the new role of the father, she has taught 75 employers and employees of small and medium businesses.

• Member of the Drafting Committee (1982-83) that has authored law 1329/83 that modified Family Law.

• Member of the study and elaboration Committee of the bill of law for legalizing abortion in Greece (1985-86)

• As the responsible of the Legal Committee of the Union of Greek Scientist Women, she has elaborated and submitted to Parliament the complete bill of law for the new Family Law (1979)

• An active member of the Women’s Movement for decades. President of the Democratic Women’s Movement, from 1981 to 1986, from 1993 to 1996, and from 2002 to 2006. She is in charge of the group “Violence- rape” of the same organization which deals with problems related to the issue. A member of the Administrative Council of the European Women’s Lobby (1996-2000)



Scientific responsible and coordinator of EU projects, among which:

• In the framework of the 5fth Medium-Term Action Program, scientific responsible for a project concerning the role stereotypes for the two genders (2003-2004)

• In the framework of the 4th Medium-Term Action Program, coordinator of a project concerning the reconciliation of family and professional life ( 1999-2000)

• In the framework of the Daphne Initiative, coordinator of a project concerning male violence against women which brought about a 3 day Conference titled “Violence against women: Zero Τolerance” (1998-99)

• With the financial support of the Vth General Directorate of the European Commission she organized a congress in Athens on the subject “Sexual harassment at the workplace” (1994). In the sane framework, she pursues efforts of raising the awareness of the general public and exerting pressure on State level for limiting the extent of the problem.

• In 1995, in the framework of the European Women’s Lobby and always with the support of the Vth Directorate, she organized a two day Conference on the subject “Conciliation of family and professional obligations” where she took care of the opening session.



Publications after 1995 :

-“Rape: the crime, the trial, the law and the social concepts” METAIXMIO Publ., Athens 2007

-“Synergy in the family and at work” Manual, KEK/GSEVEE Publ., Athens 2004.

-“Globalization and its consequences on women”, Athens 2002.

- “Guide of Legal Assistance”, KETHI Publ., Athens 2002.

- “A new quality of life away from the role stereotypes for the two genders” M.F.D –Athens 2002.

-“The development of the personality of minors under the influence of violence” Police Review, Athens 2001.

-“Rape a social phenomenon; the need of combating it” Amnesty International Review, Athens 2001.

-“Confronting the perpetrators of violence against women: the fundamental condition for eliminating this violence” Police Review, Athens 2000.

-“Violence against women – Zero Tolerance”, M.F.D Publ., Athens 2000.

- Report on the campaign “Violence against women – Zero Tolerance”, submitted to the EU Commission.

- Study on research concerning “Sexual harassment at the workplace, in Greece, in connection with the EU”, Publ. of the European Communities 1999.

-“Violence within the family in Greece, in connection with the law”, Publ. of the Minnesota lawyers, concerning the Inter-Balkan Conference on legal strategies for combating violence within the family, 1998.

-“Family, a mechanism of socialization”, Publ. of the Athens University, 1997.

-“Violence and women”, special edition of the National School for Public Health, under the title “Health and Women”, Athens 1996.

-“Sexual harassment at the workplace”, Nomiko Vima, 4/43, p.617-629.

-“Rape a scourge for society”, Publ. of the “Saint Joseph” School, Athens 1995.





ANNEX 6



Curriculum Vitae





Aikaterini Kapernarakou,



98A Makedonias street, Papagou, 15669 Athens



Tel. 210-9312947, 6974-002904

Tel / Fax 210-6524550

e-mail kajor@hol.gr



Born in Volos, Greece in 1964. Married, one daughter.

Graduated from the School of Philosophy, University of Athens. Post-graduate seminar in journalism.

Business editor for the newspaper ΚΑTHIMERINI.

Freelance as music producer for private and state radio-stations, freelance as business editor for monthly magazines.



Active member of Amnesty International (AI), Greek Section since 1986. Elected as general secretary of the board of the Greek Section (2005-2007), especially and deeply involved in women’s issues (lobbying, speaker of Amnesty on ‘stop violence against women’ campaign). Elected as vice-chair of the board (2007-2009). Deeply involved as representative of AI Greek Section in Amnesty’ international fora on various issues (policy issues, campaigns, gender policy). Representative of the Amnesty International Greek Section in public meetings/conferences on women’s rights issues, representative of the AI Greek Section in the National Committee on Gender Equality in Greece.



AI’s liaison with the women’s movement in Greece, representative of the AI Greek Section in the (Greek) Network to Combat Male Violence Against Women and in the National Observatory on Violence Against Women.





Collecting and listing the data for writing the present report was taken care of by the coordinator of the Self-Defense Group, Ada Tsarea.